The problem

  • You have a Git repository containing your project.
  • You want to “deploy” that code when it changes.
  • You’d rather not download the entire project from scratch for each deployment.

The antipattern

“I know, I’ll use git pull in my deployment script!”

Stop doing this. Stop teaching other people to do this. It’s wrong, and it will eventually lead to deploying something you didn’t want.

Deployment should be based on predictable, known versions of your code. Ideally, every deployable version has a tag (and you deploy exactly that tag), but even less formal processes, where you deploy a branch tip, should still be deploying exactly the code designated for release. git pull, however, can introduce new commits.

git pull is a two-step process:

  1. Fetch the current branch’s designated upstream remote, to obtain all of the remote’s new commits.
  2. Merge the current branch’s designated upstream branch into the current branch.

The merge commit means the actual deployed tree might not be identical to the intended deployment tree. Local changes (intentional or otherwise) will be preserved (and merged) into the deployment, for example; once this happens, the actual deployed commit will never match the intended commit.

git pull will approximate the right thing “by accident”: if the current local branch (generally master) for people using git pull is always clean, and always tracks the desired deployment branch, then git pull will update to the intended commit exactly. This is pretty fragile, though; many git commands can cause the local branch to diverge from its upstream branch, and once that happens, git pull will always create new commits. You can patch around the fragility a bit using the --ff-only option, but that only tells you when your deployment environment has diverged and doesn’t fix it.

The right pattern

Here’s what we expect from a deployment tool. Note the rule numbers — we’ll be referring to some of them simply by number later.

  1. All files in the branch being deployed should be copied to the deployment directory.

  2. Files that were deleted in the git repo since the last deployment should get deleted from the deployment directory.

  3. Any changes to tracked files in the deployment directory after the last deployment should be ignored when following rules 1 and 2.

    However, sometimes you might want to detect such changes and abort if you found any.

  4. Untracked files in the deploy directory should be left alone.

    Again, some people might want to detect this and abort the deployment.

Sitaram’s own documentation talks about how to accomplish these when “deploying” straight out of a bare repository. That’s unwise (not to mention impractical) in most cases; deployment should use a dedicated clone of the canonical repository.

I also disagree with point 3, preferring to keep deployment-related changes outside of tracked files. This makes it much easier to argue that the changes introduced to configure the project for deployment do not introduce new bugs or other surprise features.

My deployment process, given a dedicated clone at $DEPLOY_TREE, is as follows:

git fetch --all
git checkout --force "${TARGET}"
# Following two lines only required if you use submodules
git submodule sync
git submodule update --init --recursive
# Follow with actual deployment steps (run fabric/capistrano/make/etc)

$TARGET is either a tag name (v1.2.1) or a remote branch name (origin/master), but could also be a commit hash or anything else Git recognizes as a revision. This will detach the head of the $DEPLOY_TREE repository, which is fine as no new changes should be authored in this repository (so the local branches are irrelevant). The warning Git emits when HEAD becomes detached is unimportant in this case.

The tracked contents of $DEPLOY_TREE will end up identical to the desired commit, discarding local changes. The pattern above is very similar to what most continuous integration servers use when building from Git repositories, for much the same reason.

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